Dedication To McK
For which it was written to prove how simple it is to write a history sans errors; for whom it was laboriously rewritten to prove that it can be done if one takes time and had patience; and in whose hands its fate now rests.
White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville are summer resorts which rose in the l870's, achieving their full share of fame and popularity up through the 1920's after which they gradually declined until they became just quiet summer residential colonies on the lake shore.
White City extends along the lake front from Washington Ave. to the beginning of Rock Beach and is bounded on the south by the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg Railroad tracks. Windsor Beach often used interchangeably with White City, was the name applied to this area before its full development as a summer encampment and referred mostly to the resorts developed here by the successive Railway Companies which owned the land, Summerville was the name applied to all that tract of land laid out by Joseph Tone in 1872 between the angle formed by St. Paul Blvd. and Rock Beach Road to Lake Ontario from the Genesee River up through Delta Terrace with the exception of a small tract of land west of Washington Ave. belonging to Joseph Bietry, later known as Bietry Beach Park. However, Summerville at the present time applies only to the land from the Genesee River up to Bietry Beach Park, and it will be used in this sense throughout this history.
Although during the height of their fame these resorts never lacked life and gaiety, it was of a different, more refined type than the rowdyism and noise of other amusement places where concessions of all sorts vied with each other to gain patronage. Here many people spent their entire summers year after year and enjoyed the benefits of a community association organized for fun and recreation; others came down to swim, bask in the sun, or to enjoy the fresh lake breezes; still others came down to dance at the Windsor or Rendezvous, to watch the yacht races, or to see one of the Canadian steamboat come in at the municipal dock.
In relating the history of White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville, we are starting from the very earliest records available concerning the use and ownership of this tract of land in hopes that it may add interest to this chronicle, which is brought up to the present date.
Summerville and Windsor Beach (or White City) are located respectively in what was known as Lots Two and Three of Township Fourteen, Range Seven of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. The preemptive right or the right to buy the land from the Indians, was secured by Phelps and Gorham from the state of Massachusetts in 1788. In 1790 this land was bought by Robert Morris, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and a member of the Continental Congress from Pennsylvania. From here on, the life stories of Lots Two and Three differ, each passing through many hands down through various colorful stages of history.
A map of this township which was attached to a deed of indenture dated 1792, shows Samuel Ogden, agent of Robert Morris, in possession of Lot Three and Benjamin Barton, land speculator from New Jersey, owner of Lot Two. These lots were purchased from Robert Morris. Two very interesting details are recorded on this map. One is the location of Tory Walker's cabin at the east side of the mouth of the Genesee River. William (or Tory as he was called) Walker was one of Butler's rangers who had made an unsuccessful attempt to stop the advance of Sullivan's army against the Indians in 1779. While the rest of the rangers fled to Canada, Tory Walker remained here, built his log cabin (one of the first residences in this area), and made his living by hunting and fishing. For diversion he frightened the settlers with tales of Indian raids until one day, while boasting of his evil deeds in Canandaigua, he was attacked with an axe by Horatio Jones. (Horatio Jones was later one of the interpreters at the signing of the Pickering Treaty in 1794 at Canandaigua.) Fortunately for Walker, another man rushed to his aid and saved his life. Right after this narrow escape, he gathered up his belongings and fled to Canada. (McIntosh History of Monroe County, p. 17)
The second interesting detail on the map is the fact that out on the point of land where the river joins the lake and not far from Tory Walker's cabin are two trees — a butternut tree and another tree whose name is rather blurred, but it might well be the elm tree mentioned by Hosea Rogers in his reminiscences of this area.
Hosea Rogers, one of the early pioneers in Irondequoit, stated that in 1822, the mouth of the river was about two miles farther south, near the old Charlotte Lighthouse. At this point the waters widened into a triangular bay, making a fairly safe harbor. The site of Summerville (Rochester Historical Society Publication IX, p. 103) was the eastern most of two narrow flat bars of shifting sand between which ran an ever-changing channel cut by the river. On the west end of the east bar (about where the Windsor Ferry landed) stood a large elm tree? called the pilot tree because it could be seen from a great distance out on the lake and marked the entrance to the river. The early mariners used to get the range of the pilot tree on certain other trees before they attempted the passage over the bar. The extension of the pier in 1837 created a regular channel through which the vessels could proceed without fear of being grounded and made a marsh out of the east side waters which were eventually filled in to make the land on which Summerville now stands. (Rogers' use of Summerville refers only to the land at the end of St. Paul Blvd. — the resort area — not the residential section.)
Lot Two, including the Summerville plot, was sold in 1793 by Benjamin Barton to Elisha Boudinot, descendant of an old Huguenot family who fled from France at the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and brother of the more famous Elias Boudinot, revolutionary statesman. (New Jersey Historical Society Proc., v VII n. 3, p. 176; v IX n. 2, p. 130) From Boudinot it passed through various transactions until the year 1850 when it became the the property of Joseph Bietry and finally in the year 1872, with the exception of the lot retained by Bietry (later known as Bietry Beach Park), it came into the possession of Joseph Tone.
Lot Three, including the White City plot, deeded to Charles Williamson in 1792, became part of the Pulteney estate until 1864 when it passed to Nicholas Bietry and finally through Charles Stanton and Charles Chapin (who had farms on the land) to Joseph Tone in 1872. (Copies of the deeds for the transfer of these lands may be seen at the Monroe County Court House.) In this year Tone, in partnership with a few others, laid out the land together with the Summerville plot into lots 100' x 40' and planted several thousand shade trees preparing it for development as a summer resort, one of the many which were now rising on every available spot on the shores of the lake and bay.
On the site of White City, five avenues were planned — Washington, Monroe, Central, Madison, and Jefferson — all stemming from Wabash Avenue and running into Ontario Blvd. along the lake front. At the junction of Central Avenue and Ontario Blvd. a square was reserved for the erection of a hotel. Summerville streets were called First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth, and here too a large hotel was to be erected and ready for use in 1873.
Transportation from the city to Summerville and Windsor Beach was indeed difficult. If one did not ride down in a private carriage on rough dirt roads, one had to take a horse car to Lake and Driving Park Avenues (the end of the line) where one descended the stairway to the Glen House on the river bank just below Driving Park Avenue and took a steamboat to Summerville, from which point one walked up to Windsor Beach. (McIntosh op. cit. p. 237)
To facilitate transportation and thus increase the popular appeal of his summer resort, Tone purchased the right of ferryage in 1874 for $6,000 and built a splendid new ferry boat able to carry six carriages at one time (Scrantom Scrapbook of old citizens' letters, p. 126) to replace the one built by J. B. Manning in 1859. (U.A. June 16, 1860 2-4)
Further improvement of the Summerville tract was brought about the summer of 1874 by the erection of a hotel near the landing of the ferry boat. Capt. Orrin Sachett, well-known caterer, took charge. A short distance from the hotel (about 30' from the lake shore) John E. Hunter and his wife kept a bathing house where bathing suits could be rented at reasonable prices. (Scrantom Scrapbook op. cit.)
In 1876, Tone's Charlotte and Summerville Ferry Co. had a larger ferry boat, the "Yosemite", built by George M. Ault at Bennett's Landing to take the place of the old one which was carried away during the winter by the ice. The "Yosemite" under the direction of engineer Williams, was handsomely painted in blue, red, and green — a so-called centennial mixture — and propelled by steam with an 8 horsepower motor. Its size — 50' in length and 24' wide — enabled it to accommodate four double teams or five single ones besides about 200 passengers. (U.A. June 22, 1876 2-6)
The following year on June 23, the Yacht Club building (designed by A. J. Warner) was formally opened on the lake shore at Summerville. The club house was for the use of the members and their friends, among whom were a large number of the leading business men of Rochester. According to the Board of Directors, the house was intended mainly for the ladies as a quiet, pleasant retreat where they could spend the day with their children. Perhaps the most notable features of the club house were its deck roof with handsome awning and the complete kitchen in charge of an excellent cook. (U.A. June 25, 1877 2-3) Races were held quite frequently out in the lake between the various yachts, but it was not until 22 years after the opening of the club house that the Rochester Yacht Club entry —the "Genesee" — was to win the first Canadian Cup Race at Toronto. At that time a big celebration was held at the club house. (Irondequoit Centennial P. 23)
Transportation to Summerville and Windsor Beach soon became less difficult. In the year 1881, the Rochester and Windsor Beach Railway, long advocated by Joseph Tone, started from Avenue E and was to run directly down to Windsor Beach (U.A. March 19, 1881 2-5; U.A. July 28, 1888 3-1) where the Railroad Co. intended to establish a summer resort.
An article in the "Union and Advertiser" at the time described in glowing terms the proposed resort at Windsor Beach as unequaled anywhere on the lake shore. Here, about 1 3/4 miles east of Summerville, the Windsor Beach Hotel was to be erected in the most improved modern style with accommodations for 800 guests. The architects " H. and C. S. Ellis " designed a frame structure of English Gothic architecture three stories in height, over the center of which was a fourth story, surmounted by a lofty tower. It was to have a frontage of 400' along the lake side and two extensions to the rear – one with a marble floor with a billiard room and bar and the other for a kitchen. On the first floor two grand parlors and a reading room for gentlemen were planned. A piazza 18' in width surrounded the entire front of the hotel. (U.A. March 19, 1881 2-2) However, the hotel was never built and the railroad was not completed until 1883 after the Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway Co. had bought it as a belt line (the east side extension of their main line) so that coal could be delivered by ships on either side of the river.
Besides taking over the Windsor Beach Railroad, the Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway Co. also purchased 130 acres of land embracing the Chapin farm with its large lake frontage and bluff point. By the addition of a fine dining room and by making a few other necessary changes, the farm house was converted into a hotel. (U.A. August 6, 1883 2-2) A broad, well-ornamented veranda twelve feet high encircled both floors. A wide hall led into a grand reception room with a parlor for the ladies on the east side and one for the gentlemen on the west side-both opening on the verandas. There were also fine dressing rooms and lavatories with a wine room and kitchen in the rear. (Rochester and Pittsburgh R.R. Co. "Our Greeting", 1883. The resort is called Ontario Park and Cottage but was later to become Lake Bluff Hotel) The extensive lawn had been laid out in graveled walks, fountains, aquariums, and flower beds with shade trees in abundance. Two fine large apple orchards flourished on the east side of the park. The terraced bluff made the descent to the beach easy and pleasant. Here safe row boats and fishing tackle were available to the guests. (This hotel was located east of Delta Terr, whereas the hotel proposed by the Windsor Beach R.R. would probably have been on the site of the hotel that was to be erected by Tone in 1873 at the end of Central (Bateau) Ave. Butas we could find no reference to Tone's hotel actually being built, it seems reasonable to presume that his intentions were not carried out.)
As pointed out in the following excerpt from the "Union and Advertiser" in 1883, this hotel was to be exclusively for the use of quiet, peace-loving people rather than for gay parties, but the fun-loving clientele was by no means excluded from the premises, though their deportment was carefully supervised.
"This house and the grounds about it are to be reserved for the use of such ladies and gentlemen and families and parties as desire quiet and repose and freedom from the sound of clinking glasses and so forth on unwilling ears. For those who desire that sort of musical entertainment and do not wish to be oppressed by the presence of incompatible society, a diversion will be made to the eastward across the ravine where the beauties of nature are most charming." U.A. Aug. 6, 1883
Another contemporary account of this resort states:
"In the evening the entire grounds are brilliantly lighted and amply policed so that not the slightest breach of decorum can occur without being rebuked." — Roch. & Pitts R.R. op. cit.
The passenger depot of the Rochester and Pittsburgh Railroad stood on the southwest border of the park about opposite Harrison Ave. and trains from the city arrived and departed quite frequently. Capacious stables and carriage houses were provided for those who drove.
In 1886 the Rose, Watertown and Ogdensburg Railway Co. bought the property of the Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway Co. at Windsor Beach, including the belt line, to give them entrance into Rochester.
Under its new management, the hotel on the Chapin farm, now called the Lake Bluff Hotel, soon gained a reputation for serving fine foods and it was said that no more elaborate or excellent cuisine could be found at any lakeside resort. Many telegrams were received requesting preparation of dinners for parties from Rochester and other nearby towns. It particularly catered to those who were dainty in their diet, with the specialties of game birds, white fish, and salmon trout.
Not far from the hotel was a ball ground called one of the finest in western New York. Here two grandstands accommodated 3,000 people, and within the fenced-in grounds there was standing room for 20,000 more. The interior of one of the grandstands contained a vast refreshment hall to quench the thirst and appease the appetite of the sport fans. A half-mile race track for hurdle races and grounds for cricket, lawn tennis, and croquet were soon built, making Windsor Beach a regular sports arena as well as a summer resort. (U.A, July 28, 1888 3-1)
The Windsor Beach Pavilion, erected in 1882 by Sol Wile, Frank Fritzche, and A. Stalknight, was located to the west of the Lake Bluff Hotel at the junction of Central Ave. and the lake front. It was a less elaborate place than the Lake Bluff Hotel but famous for picnic parties and was largely patronized by the German element. Built of wood, two stories in height, with broad verandas in front, it contained a splendid dance hall, a concert room and a number of bedrooms, but not enough for all who applied. An attractive fountain stood between the pavilion and the shore. Nearby it had its own base ball ground and a grand stand with a capacity for 1,000 people. The ball grounds of the two hotels adjoined and were lit up at night by about 30 electric lights. The best baseball clubs in the state were engaged and a large number of league games were played including one series of games for the championship of New York between the Syracuse Stars and the Rochester Baseball Club. (This hotel — the Windsor Beach Pavilion — presumably replaced the one built by Tone in 1873 and it was designed by Mr. Rogers and called the "House of Glass" because of its glass-enclosed veranda. See U.A. May 2, 1884 2-5; D&C Mar. 16, 1895) The grounds were free to the public and ladles could go unattended "without fear of insult". (U.A. July 28, 1888 3-1)
In the meantime the United States Government had spent $6,000 in the erection in 1895 of new quarters for the life-saving crew on the beach at Summerville a short distance from the east pier to replace the old station at Charlotte. Thus an added diversion was created here when several times a week the crowds were entertained by the maneuvers of the crew while drilling on the beach under the command of Captain J. O. Doyle, an old mariner of ability and experience on the Great Lakes (U.A. April 21, 1887 2-4 and U.A. Nov. 19, 1885 2-1)
Perhaps one of the main attractions at Summerville at this time (and certainly its most interesting character) was Commodore Murray now in command of the Ferry Yosemite (U.A. Apr. 21, 1887 2-4) An actor of some ability and a lover of Shakespeare, he frequently entertained his passengers with quotations from his favorite author and often became so absorbed in his recitations he for got to collect his fares.
Now that Summerville and Windsor Beach proved to be such good investments, Charles Salmon decided to establish another summer colony; and with this end in view, bought Bietry's property of 15 acres between Windsor Beach and Summerville extending from Lake Ontario to the Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg R.R. – a distance of about 1,500 ft. In 1890 he laid it out in lots with the idea of making a community of property holders who would have a healthy summer home free from the many annoyances of lakeside resorts, yet within a few minutes walk of their many attractions and within a short distance of the city. The entire plot called Bietry Beach, contained 110 elevated building lots so arranged that a view of the lake could be seen from each one. These lots Salmon sold singly at a low price, refusing many offers for the whole tract. (U.A. July 5, 1890 p.l6)
Bietry Beach Park was the name applied to that parcel of land between Windsor Beach and Summerville stretching from the beach to the bend in the boulevard on either side of which were the Bietry Beach lots. Owned in common as a community park by all the residents of Bietry Beach, it could not be disposed of until there was a unanimous agreement among them.
Elm Beach was a small association of cottagers who lived just west of Bietry Beach at the eastern end of Summerville along the lake front. In 1890 W. H. Jones was elected president; Dr. Walters, vice-president; A. McMaster, treasurer; John W. Taylor, secretary; and David Copeland, Theodore Olcott, and Charles Salmon were trustees. They put up a structure in back of Mr. Salmon's cottage to be used on Sundays by the Elm Beach Sunday School and on weekdays for lectures, dancing and parties. (U.A. July 5,» 1890, p.l6)
This seems to have been an era of community spirit and neighborliness, for a year or two later a similar association of summer residents was formed at Windsor Beach. George A. Grenville was elected the first president (according to Emily Donovan, 6l Colebrook Dr., one of the early settlers) of the colony of the tents and cottages here, now rather appropriately called White City.
Transportation facilities to Summerville and Windsor Beach were further improved when the syndicate which bought the Bay Railroad (the Bay Railroad went along the Ridge Road to Sea Breeze and Irondequoit Bay — for the list of men in the syndicate see U.A. May 2, 1893 5-1) and the property of Tone including the right of ferryage, incorporated in the Rochester and Irondequoit R.R. Co. on May 19, 1893, and at once began to construct an electric railroad from the city line at Ridge Road to Summerville. At the same time an improved hard road of stone and cemented gravel twenty feet wide, with a dirt road twenty feet wide on either side, was built between the railroad tracks on St. Paul Blvd., making a highway 60' in width. This road was maintained by toll gates (the gates were removed in 1910) and lighted with electric lights. At various intervals along the way wells were driven which furnished sufficient water to keep the boulevard well sprinkled. (Rochester*s Summer Resorts, pub. by Rochester and Irondequoit R.R. System n.d. )
Besides the trolley line, the Rochester and Irondequoit R.R, Co, under the direction of Ira Ludington had to build a ferry to replace the Yosemite which had floated away during the winter, meeting a fate similar to its predecessor. This ferry, the Windsor, under the command of J. B. Estes, was 75' long and 40' wide. (U.A. June 7, 1893 3-2)
The following year the Summerville Pavilion, often called the Round House of Summerville Gardens, was built partly on the site of the old hotel (this was the hotel built in 1874, used during World War I to house boys in training, and torn down a few years later) which had been moved to the corner of Second St. and the Boulevard the year before. George Ensman, the proprietor, reserved the lower floor for excursions and picnics and used the upper floor for dining purposes. North of the Round House (between the sidewalk and the lake) stood an electric fountain which threw water fifty to sixty feet high on which colored lights, hidden in the wall of the foundation, reflected their varied hues.
On August 2 of the same year (1894) the James Field Co. (represented by W. S. Olmstead) presented the American Flag to the citizens of White City. A pole raising ceremony was held on August 9th and the flag with a linen streamer bearing the name of White City was unfurled. Mrs. H. R. Lewis, on behalf of the ladies, presented the streamer. Mayor A. E. Dumble, Col. James S. Graham, Rev. W. M. Rowlands, and J. M. Campbell addressed the gathering and Commodore Murray read an original poem. (U.A. Aug. 2, 1894, 6-2; Aug. 9, 1894.6-2)
Windsor Beach continued to flourish in the Gay Nineties, becoming so popular that yet another hotel, the Adelphia, was built by Gus Ran between the two railroad tracks on Washington Avenue to take care of the crowds. It was managed for many years by Robert Hodson until it was destroyed by fire toward the end of 1906.
On March 15, 1895, not long after the erection of the Adelphia, the Windsor Beach Pavilion burned to the ground. The fire was said to have been caused by the explosion of a lamp. Both Mrs. Charles Smith, the wife of the manager, and her daughter (the only occupants at the time) were rescued by neighbors. (D and C, March 16, 1895) But Windsor Beach could not afford to be without a Windsor Hotel, and the very next year the Rochester and Irondequoit R. R. Co. built a more elaborate Windsor which was to attain the reputation of having one of the most outstanding dance halls in New York State in the 1920's.
Besides the Hotel Windsor, two other buildings were constructed that year (1896) — a grocery store and the quarters for the Naval Reserves. Thomas Strickland opened the first grocery store and meat market at the top of the White City hill where Smith's grocery now stands. (in 1920 this store was operated by Noonans, and another grocery store, owned by Thomas Broderick, was built across the street where Boslov's is now located.) In previous years people had to bring all their supplies from the city or walk the railroad bridge to Charlotte and back.
At Summerville, a two-story structure, surmounted by a cupola used as an observatory and also as a station for giving signals to boats on the lake, was built for the Naval Reserves. A spacious piazza faced the north side and above this balcony looked out on the north, west, and east sides. A boat room, large enough to accommodate four or more boats holding 30 to 40 men, took up the main portion of the lower floor. On the second floor were the quarters for officers and men with 80 lockers and space for swinging and storing hammocks. A wide dock along the west side gave plenty of space to practice naval tactics. The men reached the boats by means of a long boom extending from the west front of the house across the dock and out on the water about 30', keeping their balance by means of a small guy rope and boarding the boats by a rope ladder from the boom to the water, (U.A. March 10, 1896, 8-1)
During the same year the Paul Boynton Shute Co. operated a "Shoot-the-Shutes" near the Naval Reserves. The next year the business was purchased by the Summerville Shute Co. organized by citizens of Rochester. Whereas the Boynton Shute Co. charged 10¢ admission to the enclosure, the Summerville Shute Co. gave free admission to the little park where picnickers and others might enjoy themselves under the shade trees with tables and benches placed there for their convenience, and charged only 5" for a ride on the Shute. As a further concession bikes were checked free and arrangements made with the Rochester and Irondequoit R.R. Co. by which coupon tickets would take the visitors from Ontario Beach to Summerville and return on the ferry boat Windsor and give a ride on the Shute for 10¢ or one-half the cost of last season. The Shute carried flat-bottom boats holding 8 persons to the top of an incline, turned them around on a turntable and then released them to slide down greased wooden tracks into a basin inlet of the river. A few years later, after a serious accident, it was torn down.
Windsor Beach by 1897 was covered with tents and cottages. There were about 200 of them altogether making a population of approximately 800. Whereas most of the cottagers owned the land on which their houses were built, the tenters occupied a part of the forty acres belonging to the Rochester and Irondequoit Railway Co., which supplied them all with water brought from springs on a farm more than a mile south on the boulevard and distributed by an iron conduit. The Railroad Co. also illuminated the area with electric lights furnished by the Rochester Gas & Electric Co. (U.A. July 3, 1897 10-7 also U.A. Apr. 2, 1897 11-1) To light up the streets however, it was customary to hang colored lanterns in front of each cottage and tent at night.
The tents, constructed on wooden floors and framework, had one or two completely wooden rooms — usually the kitchen and a bedroom — but the dining room, sitting room and porch were covered with canvas. During the winter all the furniture was stored in these wooden rooms. Although the tents proved substantial enough most of the time, it is said that one summer a great windstorm leveled every tent in White City. An outhouse stood at the end of each street and was used by everyone in common. A cement platform nearby contained a faucet from which all took their daily supply of water until 1912 when through the mains of the Rochester and Lake Ontario Water Co. an adequate supply of water was made available to people of Irondequoit. (Irondequoit Centennial, p. 26)
In 1903 White City had become a very popular summer residential community with many added improvements for comfort, pleasure, and recreation. A board walk promenade skirted the top of the bank along the lake front; piers were erected out into the lake for every street; at night the beach was illuminated with multi-colored lights; hammocks were strung in front of the tents under the shade trees that lined the avenues; tennis courts and croquet grounds were in abundance; and stacked up against the rear walls of many cottages were to be found fish poles belonging to every member of the family. (Rochester Herald Aug. 30, 1903) The residents of each street were responsible for the care of the property they used in common — for the upkeep of their stairway, for cleaning their part of the beach, and for any flowers and shrubs they might wish to plant. Madison Ave. residents put shrubs at the foot of the street; Jefferson Ave. had a round flower garden at the lake front; Harrison Ave. had flowers planted all down the center and used the back alley for autos or other vehicles as did Lincoln Ave. which had a string of colored Japanese lanterns down the center.
At Summerville in 1906 improvements made on the Ferry Windsor, now under the command of William F. Andrews, its third and last captain*, enabled it to cross the 500' width of the river in seven minutes. It was equipped with a boiler and. steam engine for motor power which pulled it back and forth across the river on a heavy iron chain, sagging far enough below the surface to allow safe passage of other boats coming in the harbor. It was also supplied with one hand-operated pump, fire extinguishers, three life boats and 200 life preservers.
Many a time the Windsor would break loose from its chain and float down the river toward the lake. Those were exciting times when everyone became frightened — the women screaming, the children hollering and crying — until the Coast Guard or tug boat came to the rescue on the signal of four short whistle blasts from the captain and towed her safely back to port. It is said the inebriated gentlemen on the Charlotte pier used to stand for "hours trying to determine which end was the stern and which was the bow of the ferry. (Transportation News, N.Y.St.R.R. Aug. 192?, p.24-25)
1908 went down in the history of White City as the year of the great fire. Breaking out in the Lawrence family cottage, it destroyed the summer homes of forty families when a high northwest wind spread the flames over twenty acres of land from Wabash Ave. to the lake front and from the east side of the boulevard up to the Windsor Hotel before Engine #10 of the Rochester Fire Dept. arrived and managed to control it. Although some of the cottagers saved most of their household goods, the estimated loss for the entire area was $25,000. Besides loss from the fire, a contemporary newspaper article stated that "foreigners" from Charlotte carried off every piece of furniture and everything else of value that they could lay their hands on.
The next year on July 12, in accordance with a new New York State law, White City was finally incorporated under the name of the "White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association" by eleven men (A. G. Zimmerman, H. W. Pierce, Matthew Elliott, J. H. Bailey, Frank B. Callister, Howard W. Shannon, L. Solomon, James F. Sherman, D. McCall, Charles H. Davis, C. R. Pierce) who were to act as directors until the annual meeting, the last Friday in August. The sole object of the association was to promote social and friendly relation, athletics, sports, and entertainment for its members.
About this time certain events and celebrations began to develop into traditions. A typical list of summer events at White City started with the opening baseball game in June. Then came the Fourth of July celebration for which in the 1920's it was not unusual to spend from one to 500 dollars on fireworks for an elaborate and colorful night display at the ball park. Other years, when fireworks were prohibited, a huge bonfire was built on the beach in front of the Windsor and the entertainment consisted of vaudeville acts and a community sing.
Matthew Elliott and Lawrence Solomon are said to have first conceived the idea of an annual field day in 1905. Field Day, held on the first Saturday in August, was the big celebration of the year — a time of festivity for young and old. The parade which started off the festivities of the day, consisted of a military and uniformed band; the officers of the association and the chairmen of committees (all dressed white, wearing special uniform white hats for the occasion and carrying a small American flag); and the children of the community, who in the early years also were dressed in white but later wore costumes of all sorts. The procession usually started at Summerville and proceeded along the lake front, going through one of the streets to the ball grounds where it disbanded. Prizes were then awarded for the prettiest, funniest, the best float, and for the best costumes in other classifications. During the week before the great occasion, almost every child in White City tried his best to keep secret what he was going to wear in the parade yet constantly impressed his friends with the superiority of his costume over theirs. For the rest of the afternoon games and races of every kind were held for all ages. Most of the prizes were donated by business concerns to which the members belonged or patronized. All during the day free refreshments were served to all members of the Association. In 1918 this included 1000 packages of gum, 2500 corn fritters, 1000 suckers, 50 gallons of ice cream, and 500 boxes of cough drops — the latter item was no doubt donated. Activities at the ball park usually concluded with a baseball game between the married men and the single men. In the early years a reception and dance at the Windsor that night brought the festivities to a close with a grand flourish.
In the latter part of August, the carnival was held to raise money for the next year's events and to replenish the treasury after the Field Day depletions. It included (besides regular games of chance) vaudeville acts, a grand lottery prize, and sometimes a ferris wheel. Homemade salads, pies and cakes were donated by members of the Association, and a picnic supper was served on the final night. In prosperous years it was not unusual to clear $800 profit from the carnival.
On the last Friday in August the annual election was held. That night a huge towering bonfire was built on the beach in front of the Windsor Hotel and all the residents would gather on the bank or down on the beach to watch it. Among the crowd there would usually be a few irate members who had forgotten to guard all their property left out in the yard that night; for on election night the young boys in the community ran wild and seized every bit of wood they could lay their hands on to place on the election altar. Nothing was too valuable to plunder — chairs, benches, tables, clothes poles, or anything that would burn and could be dragged down to the beach. Perhaps it was symbolic — the burning up of the past before starting afresh with new officers. On this night also a group of young people would parade through the streets, yelling for their favorite candidates. (For a list of officers and duties, see Appendix.) August G. Zimmerman had the honor of holding the office of president longer than any other. He was elected in 1907 and remained until replaced by Charles Haskins in 1918. (The newspapers at the time mention no officers for the years immediately preceding 1907 but only a committee in charge of field arrangements. (See D&C Aug. 6, 1905; Aug. 5, 1906, Aug. 4, 1907; Aug. 31, 190?) His leadership, however must have been well liked since four years later he was re-elected In one of the most exciting elections ever held. He defeated D. Lee Killer with 236 votes to 143. After the election an impromptu parade, headed by the new officers, marched through the streets of White City to the Windsor, putting a stop to the dancing for a while, by singing "The Gang's All Here" and "We Won't Go Home Until Morning". (D&C Aug. 26, 1922) It was also in this election that Henry L. Thayer who was to remain in office 16 years, was elected treasurer.
Besides the annual clam bake, the final event of the season was the Harvest Dance or Inaugural Ball held early in September. Although other dances were held throughout the season, the Inaugural Ball, held at the Windsor, was the only dance free to members of the Association. At this time the outgoing president made a speech of appreciation for the cooperation he had received throughout the year and the incoming president made/public his plans for the next year.
The golden era of White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville came during the 1920's and early '30s. It was in this decade that the Windsor had its heyday. Its exclusive reputation and high popularity were non-parell. Famous bands played there and only organizations of recognized standing and merit were encouraged to back dances; yet there was not a vacant night from June to September.
It was completely remodeled by 1924, and one of its distinctive features was the Parisian repose, located in an artistically laid out corner of the dance hall and outfitted with built-in settees (which lined the paneled walls) and several sets of prim Parisian tables and chairs. London gray, two shades of mountain green, and Egyptian orange comprised the color scheme throughout the dance hall and verandas. Innumerable mosaic lanterns hung from the ceiling and a great ball of a thousand mirrors, suspended from the center of the hall, reflected the beauty of all the lamps within range and also the rays of four vari-colored spot lights thrown on the throng of dancers, thus producing a myriad of scintillating colors. (Transportation News, N.Y. State Railways, June 1924, p. 11-12)
In those days most any resident of White City would tell you that there was no resort in the whole United States that could equal it. He would also tell you that any resort you might name was lacking in one or more things White City possessed.
"Just name the places which have a nice shady beach and a lake which deepens gradually with two or three accessible sand bars and nary a stone under foot."
"What about Charlotte or Sea Breeze" you might say.
"But they are public beaches and are likely to be crowded and noisy."
"That's true," you might admit, and if you should chance to know of a few comparable private beaches, he would then say: "Yes, but is it as accessible to a large city by bus? Does it have all the conveniences? Is it located on a bluff so that it escapes all the danger of high waters? Does it have a dance hall equal to the famous Windsor? Is it near a port where large steamships dock? Is there a Coast Guard station nearby in case help is needed? Is there a community organization comparable to the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association?"
Perhaps long before he had reached the final question, you would have been compelled to admit that you could think of no other place that had all these advantages.
White City in its prime was indeed a beautiful spot with its rows of white cottages along tree-lined streets, its wide beach of finely ground sand, and its pleasant walk all along the high bluff on the lake front down to Summerville and the river dock. Then, there was a very special place, a kind of Ivory Tower Hideout, known to only a very few. It was located just beyond the bend of the bluff at the end:of the breakwater and consisted of a group of huge granite rocks piled one on top of another every which way as they were thrown down the bank by the Rochester and Lake Ontario Railroad to keep the lake from undermining the tracks on the bank above. It was here that a few of the more daring children in the community used to play, jumping from rock to rock, daring each other to do the same. It also served the purpose of a delightful secluded retreat where one could read or write or muse on the past and plan for the future while sitting on one of the high white rocks watching the waves dance against the lower rocks below one, each time receding to make another effort.
Here, too, was the spot where bonfires at night were their loveliest. Nestled in between these huge white rocks, the fire in its warm glowing brightness in contrast with the surrounding black of the night, cast lacey shadows of the branches of nearby trees against the smooth white surface of the higher rocks, while the soft even lapping of the nearly calm lake beneath the star-lit sky gave an inner peace to the hearts of those who sought a few minutes of relief from a care-torn world.
At Summerville there were many things to do to pass away the idle hours. There was always dancing at Cain's Dance Tavern (later called The Rendezvous) located on the corner of Third Street and the lake front. Although it never gained the fame of the Windsor, it did attract large crowds and was noteworthy for its exotic style of architecture of Chinese design. For dinner or refreshments one could go to Popp's Inn or the octagon-shaped Summerville Gardens where real alligators swam around a gushing fountain in the center of the lower floor. There was usually a crowd down to watch the large Canadian steamships dock while on their way to Montreal, Kingston, Toronto, or the Thousand Islands. Very often the spectators would be entertained by a wedding party seeing the bride and groom off on their honeymoon trip or by the antics of a drunk who managed to lock himself in his stateroom just before he was to disembark. The steamship terminal and immigrant station was constructed at Summerville in 1921. A disagreement between the Canadian Steamship Company and the New York Central Railroad, owners of the west side wharf,threatened to cancel all Rochester stops of the steamships and necessitated moving the terminal from Charlotte to Summerville. (T.U. Dec. 16, 1920; Post Express June 11, 1921)
Then there was that delightful walk out to the end of the pier and back, especially beautiful on a starry night. From the pier one could hear the bank concert and the merry-go-round at Charlotte and see the light-studded ferris wheel revolve at Sea Breeze or just watch the yachts sail up and down the quiet flowing river. There were also some whose favorite fishing spot was near the end of the pier. And every other year or so there was great sport at Summerville when the Rochester Yacht Club raced with the Canadian Yacht Club for the prize-winning cup. Then, if one grew tired of Summerville, one could always take the ferry to Charlotte for variety and a change of scene.
In the early 1930's much excitement was caused by the rum-running activities out in the lake. The Coast Guard had a 36' picket boat and a 75' patrol boat (both armed with machine guns) which patrolled the coast for thirty miles east and west of Rochester on the lookout for liquor smugglers. There were also two speed boats, both armed with machine guns, kept at the port just in case of need.
The White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association continued to flourish during this period of prosperity. Weekly meetings were held in the back room of the grandstand to plan for the regular annual events and to discuss matters of importance to the welfare of the whole community. Membership in the Association varied from year to year, averaging about 400. The cost was $1.00 for adults and 50¢ for children.
The further development of the Association may perhaps best be seen by recounting the most significant doings as related in the book of minutes kept by the secretary.
In 1925, in order to have some selection of the families to reside in the community, rules governing the rental of cottages were adopted and were to be strictly enforced by the Railway Properties Corporation from whom the land was then leased. No cottage was to be rented or sold without the written consent of the two cottages on each side of the cottage to be rented or sold, nor without the signature of the president of the Association. Those on the corner had to have the written consent of the owner of the two cottages adjoining, the owner of the cottage across the street and of the cottage immediately in the rear as well as the signature of the president.
Sweaters were purchased for the members of the White City Indoor Baseball Team in 1926 and it was decided that only players who were, or whose parents were, resident members of the Association would be eligible for the ball team. Two years later the Times-Union gave a new baseball score board to the Association.
In 1929 an athletic director, Norman Dakin, was engaged to take care of a playground for boys. He was later requested to instruct the girls two days a week. This was granted and at the end of the season 21 boys and 13 girls had learned to swim; many others enjoyed games and crafts at the playground. The next year parent swimming classes were established and many ladies learned to swim.
Besides the beginning of the women's organization which gave card parties at the Windsor Hotel to raise money for the Association, the most significant event of 1930 was the announcement that lots east of Jefferson Ave. would be for sale. As all of the people on that side rented the land from the Railway Company, but owned their cottages, it was a case of either buying the land or moving their cottage if they could not sell it. However most of the residents did buy the land and in that same year formed a new organization, called the Windsor Park Lot Owners with Charles Haskins as president, mainly for the purpose of taking care of a water supply problem.
A number of years before, the different viewpoints of the property owners and renters had resulted in a lack of cooperation. Almost all of the residents of Summerville and a few in White City had purchased their lots at a private sale many years before and were indifferent as to whether leases were higher or not. For this reason some of the renters worked for the separation of Summerville from the Association. This was accomplished; but in 1934, Summerville was brought back into the Association. These facts might have contributed to the formation of this new organization with common problems. The organization died out almost immediately however, as the White City Association decided to act in their behalf. But as soon as they owned their lots, these people seemed to take little interest in the Association and further excluded themselves by erecting hedges, fences, and "private property" signs.
A beach patrol was formed in 1932 and Mr. Robert Ahrens was engaged for the job (which included instructing children in physical culture) thus replacing the playground director of previous years. That same year (1932) a new style hat of white linen was voted the official field day hat, superseding the old one of white felt.
Another important year in the history of White City was 1934. Not a little confusion was caused by changing the street names so that they would not conflict with those in the city of the same name, as this year Claverhouse Post Office Station* was abolished and mail for White City was taken over by the city post office.
The streets were then named appropriately for a lakeside resort and in alphabetical order — Anchor, Bateau, Clipper, Delta, and Ebb. The last street, Lincoln, was named Tone Terrace after Joseph Tone who first laid out this tract of land.* A few of the streets dissatisfied with their new names, drew up a petition to revert to their original ones. This was accomplished in the case of Madison and Harrison Avenues.
The year 1934 also brought the aid of a "New Deal" Organization, the C.W.A., which paid for two men for the beach patrol; and it was this year that the Association gave the responsibility for the use and upkeep of the ball field to the White City Braves, a baseball team, which was to return 50% of the profits to the Association. In June of the following year the grandstand was remodeled and made into a clubhouse, and a flag and pole were presented by Mr. Robert Ahrens, the recreational director. On Sept. 30 of that year (1935) the constitution and bylaws of 1926 were revamped and brought up to date. (See Appendix)
In 1936 the New Era Adult Education program of Monroe County furnished recreational leaders to instruct children at the ball field in arts and crafts and supervise the games; a volley ball league vas organized by the men; a wooden tower was built for the beach patrol; a water carnival was held on Aug. 29th; a ping pong table and bingo set were purchased for the clubhouse; and Ray Bagley vas appointed custodian at $25.00 per year.
In 1937 a junior club of boys and girls of high school age was formed and sweaters were purchased by all members. Their activities included a trip to Co-burg on the Ontario, an amateur, night and rummage sale at the Windsor, and various other parties. The chief complaint that year pertained to the playing of tennis early Sunday mornings when residents in the near vicinity of the tennis courts wished to indulge in a well-earned sleep. Some members further complained that there was unnecessary racket and profanity during the day. Fred Neussle volunteered to stand guard at the courts from six to nine A.M. each Sunday to prevent playing during those unearthly hours.
A number of different affairs were held that year (1937) which were to be repeated in the following years. The Association conducted a Cobourg cruise in the latter part of August with seventy members attending; the volley ball team, the Wampums, were given a steak roast by Mr. Neussle; bingo parties were held by the various streets to raise money; and the activities for the season concluded with a clambake on Sept. 19th.
Aside from the changing of the street names, perhaps the most disturbing event in the fairly peaceful life of White City came in 1938 when the Glen Haven Realty Co., owner of the property south of Rock Beach Road on which the ball grounds and clubhouse were located, decided to divide that property into small lots for sale and to construct a new road from Washington Ave. parallel with the north side of the railroad track to a point where it would meet Rock Beach Road. Although this was never accomplished, it necessitated dismantling the 3 year old clubhouse the next year by the American Wrecking Co., the storing of all property, and the establishment of a sinking fund for the purchase of a new clubhouse.
That year an archery range and badminton court were added to the sport field. A hobo camp, just across the railroad tracks back of the ball field, was a subject of much discussion until it was finally cleared out by the Town of Irondequoit. It is said it was quite a luxurious camp with lean-to shelter, brick fireplace, pantry with kitchen utensils and refrigerator. (Rochester Evening News, June 27,'38)
The Association meetings in 1939 were held in the Boosters' Club House across from Smith's Grocery store, and field day was held on the beach for the first time, Henry L. Thayer resigned as treasurer, and a silver plaque was given to him in appreciation of his long term of service. It was then decided (with no reflection on Mr. Thayer) that all future treasurers be bonded for $1,000 and that an auditing committee be appointed each year to edit the books. A proposal was made that $500 in the treasury of an inactive organization, called the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Fire Association, be turned over to the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association.
In 1940 the Youth Federation Association leased the Windsor for a year and let the local Association use it every Monday night for their meetings at $5 a night. Although they now had a meeting place and the use of the recreation field and the vacant lot at Washington and Rock Beach Roads (used for carnivals) had been regained, the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association was well on its way toward oblivion. Membership was down to 230; carnival profits brought only $125; the volley ball league failed to function; attendance at the weekly meetings was negligible,and little interest was shown in the traditional events.
Further signs of declining interest appeared in 1941 when a couple of meetings had to be canceled because of no quorum. Finally on Aug. 25th, a mass meeting with 60 members present, was held to determine whether it was worthwhile to continue the Association next year. Many spoke in favor of carrying on in the interests of the welfare of the community and to develop community spirit. A questionnaire was filled out by those present to ascertain their willingness to cooperate in activities and their opinion in regard to a clubhouse, recreation grounds, and other things. It was finally decided to go on as usual next year. In 1941, for the first time since the incorporation, the nominating committee failed to function at the time specified in the constitution and the day for election passed without an election being held. This compelled the Board of Directors to meet and select a complete slate. The officers were then elected.
The Association had leased the Windsor in 1941 and then sub-leased it to the Nine-o'Clock Club which conducted dances there on Saturday and Sunday nights. These affairs were not too successful for they attracted only a small crowd.
The next year the Windsor Hotel, now in a rather dilapidated condition, was saved from the wrecker's ax and turned over to the Association to be used as their official headquarters until Aug. 8th. An attempt to hold regular dances every Thursday had to be canceled at the end of June due to lack of attendance. Weekly meetings continued to be held on Mondays with bingo and square dances after the meetings. The building fund was converted into War Bonds. The Association again tried to hold dances at the Windsor, this time as co-sponsor with a group, of boys under Dr. Phillips, one of the resident members, but these too had to be discontinued at the end of July because of the antagonistic attitude of some of the residents.
Early in 1943 the few feeble attempts made to continue the regular meetings failed for lack of a quorum, and the year passed without any further meetings, thus ending the life of the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association on approximately its 53rd anniversary if we count from the year 1891 in which we first find mention of an existing organization.
Not only had the Association died, but White City and Summerville were becoming mere shadows of their former life of gaiety which was probably the chief contributing cause of the decline of the Association.
The decline of Summerville came gradually as one by one its attractions were taken away. In 1927 (due to competition from the Stutson St. Bridge) the Ferry Windsor ran at a loss and was permanently suspended the next year, thus making connections difficult between Charlotte and Summerville if one did not have a car. In 1932 the Municipal Terminal was moved back to Charlotte, taking with it much of the excitement of watching the coming and departing of any vacationers. By this time the Summerville Gardens had closed down. Soon the coast patrol for liquor smugglers was no longer needed. Then the Rendezvous discontinued as a dance hall and later tried to survive by changing into a roller-skating rink, which lasted but a few years more. When World War II came, the little diversion still to be found at Summerville was taken away. The pier was declared government property and the public was prohibited from the area. About the same time the yacht races with Canada were abandoned.
In the meantime the gradual loss of appeal of White City's main attraction, the Windsor, was brought about by the repeal of prohibition and the opening of other more elaborate places. However, in the 30's, although dances were held for the most part only on weekend nights, it was still very popular. During intermission the couples would promenade along the board walk at the lake front, while during the dances the people of White City would derive a certain amount of vicarious pleasure from watching the dancers from outside the screened French windows, pointing out this or that couple to their companions while listening to the music. Its appeal as a dance hall declined gradually until just before it burned to the ground December 10, 1942, it was used primarily as a meeting place for the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association and only occasionally for dances.
Besides the decadence of White City, Windsor Beach, and Summerville as resorts the lack of interest in the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association might also be attributed to the fact that many of the old settlers had died and their families had moved away to take defense jobs or were drafted into the Army. The newcomers to whom they rented their cottages, being residents for only one or two seasons, were not interested in the Association. Then too, the loss of the recreation grounds and the clubhouse did their part in lowering the general enthusiasm for the Association.
Although White City and Summerville have declined as pleasure resorts, they have not as yet become ghost towns — they have merely passed into another stage of history wherein they are to play but minor roles, that of quiet, peaceful residential colonies on the lake shore, havens of rest from the mad whirl of busy city life.
In 1944 as in the years to follow, when one of the old settlers (who but a decade ago boasted, that no other resort in the country could equal White City) walks slowly over the old familiar paths he knows so well, a certain amount of wistfulness and a little bit of sadness creeps over his face as vivid memories of the golden era of the past come before him.
The streets are now called by different, unfamiliar names and no longer are decorated with flowers, shrubs, or colored lanterns. The tents are no more and some of the cottages have been painted in other colors than the traditional white. The beach is a little narrower and eastward toward Rock Beach, the old breakwater has fallen and deteriorated. The beloved rocks, now hardly accessible, have been covered with decaying seaweed and bits of rubbish thrown over the bank, which itself has been stripped of the beautiful trees that used to cast their leafy shadows on the rocks. A cement sidewalk and a charred square piece of earth are all that remain of the famed Windsor. About half of the old board walk is still there, but even that is giving way under the weight of years. The club house and ball grounds have vanished. No longer do the citizens of White City gather together for sport and recreation. Many of the old familiar faces are missing. All is serene and peaceful here now with everyone too busy tending to his own affairs to pay much attention to his neighbors except to nod and pass the time of day. Summerville? Oh, yes, that's the place where the Summerville buses turn around to return to the city. Yes, the Yacht Club and the Naval Reserve buildings are still there and a rather new Coast Guard station which was built in 1939. There is also a refreshment stand for the occupants of those buildings and a few others who may chance to wander down this way, but all in all it presents but a dreary, lifeless picture, causing the old settler to heave a big sigh and head back toward his cottage with the firm conviction that nothing is quite so permanent in this old world as change.
Section I Name
This organization shall be known as the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association (Incorporated).
Section 2 Boundary
The territory of the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association shall be the area bounded on the north by Lake Ontario, on the west by the Genesee River, on the south by Cole Road extended through to the Genesee River, on the east by Rock Beach Road extended through to Lake Ontario.
Section I Object
Its object shall be athletic sports, entertainment, and general welfare of the community.
Section I Membership
The membership shall be composed of two classes, viz: resident and nonresident members.
Only a resident member who has paid his or her dues 30 days prior to election, has the right to one vote at the regular election. (Amended Aug. 8, 1938. Approved Aug. 22, 1938)
Only a resident member who has paid his or her dues 14 days prior to election has the right to one vote at the regular election.
A member who will be unable to attend regular election on election day, may place his or her sealed indicated preference in the hands of the secretary prior to election.
A member must be at least 18 years of age to be entitled to vote at election.
Any person elected to act as an officer of this association, must have been a resident member for three years.
Section I Meetings
This Association shall meet on the first Monday in June and each succeeding Monday thereafter.
On the last Monday in August, the presiding officer shall designate the final meeting and any further meetings held during the year will be special meetings called by the president in which case all members must be notified.
Section I Officers
Officers shall consist of the following: President, First Vice President, Second Vice President, Recording Secretary, and Treasurer.
Section I Board of Directors
The president shall appoint an alderman and commissioner from each street who with the officers and ex-presidents shall constitute a Board of Directors.
Section I Expenses
The expenses of this organization shall be financed by dues of its membership and other activities.
Section I Property
The legal title of all property, effects and assets of the association shall be vested in the Board of Directors of the Association.
All books, papers and records of the association shall at all reasonable times be open to the inspection of any member of the Association.
Section I Constitution
This constitution may be altered or amended with the approval of the Board of Directors by a 2/3 vote of the members present at such meetings, provided such amendments are proposed at a regular meeting held two weeks prior to the vote.
Section I Order of Business
Constitution acted on Sept. 30, 1935
The president shall preside at all regular meetings of the Association and of the Board of Directors, shall authorize the call for special meetings, shall appoint all committees and shall be ex-officio member of all standing committees.
The vice president shall assume the duties of the president in his absence.
The secretary shall keep all minutes of meetings and proceedings of the Association and the Board of Directors in books belonging to the Association, shall have custody of the constitution and by-laws at each meeting, shall conduct the correspondence of the Association. The secretary shall receive a minimum salary of $15 per year.
The treasurer shall have charge of all funds of the Association, shall keep its accounts, shall pay all bills, approved by the Board of Directors and keep proper vouchers. Ho shall at the annual meeting of the Association make a full written report of the financial status of the Association. The treasurer shall receive a minimum salary of $15 per year for his services. Amended Aug. 14, 1939, approved Aug. 28, 1939 that the treasurer be bonded and an auditing committee be appointed.
The Board of Directors shall approve all expenditures, all committees and shall exercise the general function of the Association itself when imperative.
No person has the power to incur any obligation in the name of the White City, Windsor Beach and Summerville Athletic Association without first having the power invested in him by said Association at its regular meeting.
Eight members of the Board shall constitute a quorum.
The election shall be on the last Friday in August of each year and the caucus shall be held two weeks in advance of the election.
The action of the caucus shall not prevent independent nomination for any office provided such nominations are made from the floor at the regular meeting prior to the election.
The nominating committee shall be appointed by the president and consist of five or more ex-presidents. In the event of an insufficient number of ex-presidents to constitute a quorum, the president shall appoint any adult member to complete this committee.
Interpretation of the constitution and by-laws shall rest with the Board of Directors.
A special meeting may be called by the president with the approval of the Board of Directors on necessary occasions, and shall call such meetings when he is requested in writing by at least 10 members (and only such business as called for in the notice shall be transacted). All members must be notified five days in advance.
The term of the office of the president shall not be more than two consecutive years.
The by-laws may be amended in the same manner as the constitution.
By-laws enacted upon Sept. 30, 1935
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